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What is Trap Neuter Return?

A Trap, Neuter, and Return (TNR) program is a program in which community cats are humanely trapped, evaluated, vaccinated, sterilized, and marked by an identifying notch in the left ear, all administered by a veterinarian, and returned to the trap location. TNR is a proven method that is both humane and effective. The colony population size remains stable. When all cats are spayed, neutered, and returned to a colony, the population size will gradually decrease as offspring are no longer produced. Because of the gradual decrease, the vacuum effect will not occur.

 - [TNR] is not only the most humane method of preventing cats from entering the shelter system; it’s the most effective. - Best Friends Animal Society
-  "The programs and services of the No Kill Equation include a feral cat Trap-Neuter-Return program..." -

Nathan Winograd, National No-Kill Leader

What is a community cat?

“Community cat” is an umbrella definition that includes any un-owned cat. These cats may be “feral” (un-socialized) or friendly, may have been born into the wild or may be lost or abandoned pet cats. Some community cats are routinely fed by one or more community members, while others survive without human intervention. Whatever a cat’s individual circumstances, the term “community cat” reflects the reality that for these cats, “home” is within the community rather than in an individual household.


A colony can range from 3–25 cats. Their locations vary.  Community cat colonies can be in alleyways, parks, or neighborhoods.  Members consist of adult females, their young, and some adult males.

Why is TNR Beneficial to Fort Bend County?

For a long time, "catch and kill" was a widely accepted method of managing community cat colonies. The cats were trapped and removed from their established colony to be euthanized. While this method causes an instant decrease in the overall colony numbers, it is not effective over time. Colonies subject to "catch and kill" typically end up increasing in number back to their original size as a result of what is known as the vacuum effect.

What is the vacuum effect? Community cat colonies, like other populations of animals in the wild, have a certain population size at which they are most stable. When the population size of a colony is drastically reduced in a short amount of time, the colony reacts by trying to return to the stable size. The remaining members of the colony increase mating activities in an effort to create more offspring and stabilize the colony population size. A reduction in size also opens the door for newcomers to the colony - other cats in the area may move in. Because of the vacuum effect, "catch and kill" has no lasting impact on the size of a community cat colony.

Once the community cats within a colony are spayed and neutered, not only will the population size gradually decrease, but the cats will also be healthier and coexist more peacefully within a neighborhood. Female cats, prevented from having any more litters, will be healthier. Male cats will gradually lose the urge to roam and fight, and will be less prone to injury. Behaviors associated with unaltered cats, such as yowling and marking territory with urine, will disappear.

What is the alternative to TNR?

If more animals are responsibly released back into their original environments through the TNR program, less animals are euthanized.

TNR is a widely accepted and supported effort to save lives, not only in Fort Bend County but around the country. For example, UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine recently published an article supporting the initiative. Additionally, shelters across the state including San Antonio's Animal Care Services and national oranizations such as Best Friends Animal Society and the National No-Kill movement support the initiative.

Does putting community cats back into the community increase the risk for birds and wildlife to be harmed?

It has been argued that cats should be collected from the community, impounded and euthanized in shelters to protect wildlife and public health. However, euthanizing or removing all community cats from an area may lead to an increased population of other non-native species with an even more detrimental effect. 

There are many more cats in the community currently than DARS-TX can take in over a short period of time. The TNR program will decrease the number of cats that could potentially harm birds and wildlife over time (refer to more information about the benefits of TNR above).

How can I keep unwanted community cats off of my property?

Remove all potential food sources from the property: This would include pet food for the resident’s animals, meat scraps in compost, fallen fruit from trees, barbecue grills, excess bird food from birdfeeders and garbage. Garbage bags are very attractive to animals, so trash should be kept in containers with a secure lid, and put out in the morning of pick up to reduce the temptation for the animals.

Limit availability of water: Limit access to water features, pools and ponds with fencing. Remove or repair sources of standing water.

Remove or secure potential shelter areas: Secure access under houses, sheds, decks, porches and buildings with wire fencing. Open spaces beneath structures should be tightly screened with 1/4- or 1/3-inch galvanized hardware mesh. The bottom edge of the wire should be buried at least 6 inches deep, extended outward for 12 inches, so it forms an L shape, and then covered with soil, or heavy stones. Trees should be trimmed so that the branches that overhang roofs are at least 5 feet from the house. Bushes and shrubs need to be thinned and trimmed so that there is 18 inches of open space above the ground to limit the cover for animals to hide under.

Other useful tactics to deter unwanted cats: Place chicken wire or plastic carpet runner, spikes up, under flower bed mulch to make scratching uncomfortable. Sprinkle coffee grounds or citrus peels or use citrus spray on gardens and shrubs. One very effective tool is a motion detection device combined with common water, available from various outlets. The cat breaks the beam of the device, and is immediately sprayed with a stream of water. This device works on raccoons, dogs, opossums and other animals, too.

Need to Borrow a Trap?

Traps are available and can be reserved by emailing BARC has limited number of traps available and MUST be reserved ahead of time.

There is no cost to reserve a trap, but a credit card form must be completed and if the trap is not returned within 30 days a credit card will be charged.

Need Assistance?

If you need assistance trapping email or text 346-866-DARS (3277)


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